Microphones are tools. Some do some things, some do others, some do some things well and others the same but not as well.
There are 4 main types of microphones: cardioid, super cardioid, omni and figure 8.
Cardioid: Imagine a Japanese fan coming from the tip of the mic. That’s the pattern it will hear sound from.
Super Cardioid means the fan is not fully unfurled – a tighter pickup area.
Omni means all around, from everywhere – think a globe around the mic as it’s pick up range.
And finally, Figure 8. Put the mic in the center of the 8 and it’s a visual to the pattern it will pick up – not much if anything from the side and everything in front and in back. Very useful in rejecting sound you don’t want coming in from the side.